Hydroelectric Power Plant

The hydroelectric power plant is a generating station that utilizes the potential energy of water for generating electric energy. In this post you’ll learn all about Hydroelectric Power Plant by ElectricalEngineering.XYZ

Working of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Hydroelectric power plants are built in mountains where the structure of the dam can be built conveniently and large water reservoirs can be obtained with much less effort. The water head is provided by building dam structure across some water resources.

Water from the height is allowed to fall down and hit the water turbine. The turbine is synchronized with alternators and they drive the alternator thus converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Construction of Hydroelectric Plant


The first major component in hydropower stations is the dam. A dam is a barrier for water that stores the water and creates the water head (height). Dams are usually built of steel, concrete or stone masonry, earth or rock fill. The topography of the area plays a major role in selecting the type and arrangement of the dam.


Penstocks are the conduits that carry water to the turbines. They can either be open or closed. Usually, they
are made of steel. Sometimes reinforced concrete is also used for penstocks.

Surge tank

In case of open conduits, no protection measures are necessary. However, in the case of closed conduits, abnormal pressure conditions should be solved. For this reason, closed conduits always employ a surge tank. In a surge tank, the water level rises or falls to reduce the pressure swings in the conduit.

Water turbine

Water turbines are used for converting the energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Water coming from te conduits is allowed to fall on turbine blades which causes turbine to rotate.


Turbines are synchronised with alternators which produces electrical energy at its output.

What is the Hydroelectric power plantBasic video on working of Hydroelectric power plant
Types of turbines in Hydropower plant3 Different types of turbines in Hydroelectric power plant
Types of Hydropower plant on the basis of HeadClassification of hydro plants on the basis of height of head
Forebay in Hydropower plantWhat is forebay and what is its role
Advantages of Hydropower plant10 Advantages of generating power from water
What is spillwayRole of spillways in Hydroelectric Power Plant

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