Base Bias Circuit Configuration and Calculations

The simplest biasing applies a base-bias resistor between the base and a base battery VBB. It is convenient to use the existing VCC supply instead of a new bias supply. An example of an audio amplifier stage using base-biasing is “Crystal radio with one transistor . . . ” crystal radio, Ch 9 . Note the resistor from the base … Read more

Transistor Biasing Techniques

In the common-emitter article, we saw a SPICE analysis where the output waveform resembled a half-wave rectified shape: only half of the input waveform was reproduced, with the other half being completely cut off. Since our purpose at that time was to reproduce the entire waveshape, this constituted a problem. The solution to this problem … Read more

Cascode Amplifier – Two Stage Amplifier

The cascode amplifier is a two-stage amplifier that consists of a common-emitter stage feeding into a common-base stage. In this post you’ll learn basic concepts and fundamentals of cascode amplifier. While the C-B (common-base) amplifier is known for wider bandwidth than the C-E (common-emitter) configuration, the low input impedance (10s of Ω) of C-B is … Read more

50+ Raspberry Pi Project Ideas

The Raspberry Pi is a small computer that can do a lot of things. You can use it to design a telescope, can make robots of it, can plug it into a monitor, and attach a keyboard and mouse. In this list, we have compiled 50+ Raspberry Pi Projects. You can take these as project … Read more

BJT as Common-Base Amplifier – Transistor Common-Base Configuration

The final transistor amplifier configuration (Figure below) we need to study is the common-base. This configuration is more complex than the other two, and is less common due to its strange operating characteristics. It is called the common-base configuration because (DC power source aside), the signal source and the load share the base of the transistor as … Read more

BJT as Common Collector Amplifier – Transistor in Common Collector Configuration

The schematic diagram of a common-collector amplifier configuration is shown below. It is called the common-collector configuration because (ignoring the power supply battery) both the signal source and the load share the collector lead as a common connection point as in Figure below. It should be apparent that the load resistor in the common-collector amplifier circuit … Read more

BJT as Common Emitter Amplifier – Transistor Common Emitter Configuration

One of the simpler transistor amplifier circuits to study previously illustrated the transistor’s switching ability. (Figure below) It is called the common-emitter configuration because (ignoring the power supply battery) both the signal source and the load share the emitter lead as a common connection point shown in Figure below. This is not the only way in which a transistor … Read more

BJT Operation in Active Mode

When a transistor is in the fully-off state (like an open switch), it is said to be cutoff. Conversely, when it is fully conductive between emitter and collector (passing as much current through the collector as the collector power supply and load will allow), it is said to be saturated. These are the two modes of operation … Read more